Cellular connectivity glossary by 1oT

Cellular connectivity and IoT is changing rapidly. More so, the industry uses many terms that are hard to understand. Sometimes even for us. Therefore, we have created a jargon-busting glossary to explain terms used with eSIMs, remote SIM provisioning, and more.
  1. 2.4 GHz – A short-range wireless band commonly used in wireless technologies such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and ZigBee.

  2. 2G – The second generation of GSM cellular technology that improved performance by adding to the cellular radio spectrum to help solve coverage issues and drops in signal due to urban obstacles. It was also the turning point in moving from analog transmission methods to digital, adding digital encryption, and paving the way for cellular data usage.

  3. 3G – The third generation of GSM cellular technology, offering substantially improved data transfer rates over its predecessor, 2G. While the original release of 3G used the UMTS method, improvements have been made to increase capacity and data speeds with additional protocols, including HSPA.

  4. 3GPP – Third Generation Partnership Project (GSM family of technologies).

  5. 4G – The fourth generation of GSM cellular technology and the latest upgrade to the GSM network, providing higher data transfer speeds. 4G is also referred to as LTE.
  6. API – Application Programming Interface; a set of functions and procedures that allow the creation of applications that access the features or data of an operating system, application, or other services.
  7. APN – access point name; this is the gateway between the mobile network and the Internet.

  8. Bootstrap Profile – A profile containing one or more Network Access Application, and associated Network Access Credentials which, when installed on an eUICC, enables access to the communication network(s), only to provide transport capability for eUICC management and profile management between the eUICC and an SM–SR.

  9. CDR – A call detail record (CDR) is a file containing information about recent system usage such as the identities of sources (points of origin), the identities of destinations (endpoints), the duration of each call or data session, the amount billed for each call or data session, the total usage in the billing period and the running total charged during the billing period. The format of the CDR varies among providers or programs.

  10. Connectivity Parameters – A set of data (for example, SMSC address) required by the eUICC to open a communication channel (for example, SMS, HTTPS) on a dedicated network.

  11. Disabled Profile – The state of a Profile where all files and applications (for example, NAA) present in the Profile are not selectable over the eUICC–Terminal interface.

  12. Enabled Profile – The state of a Profile when its files and/or applications (for example, NAA) are selectable over the UICC–Terminal interface.

  13. eSIM – eSIM can refer to two different things. At 1oT, we consider eSIM (technically known as eUICC) to be an unlocked SIM card that enables you to swap carrier (mobile network operator) services “over-the-air” securely. eSIM (eUICC) comes in the form of a solderable chip-SIM (MFF2) as well as the standard plastic SIM card (mini, micro & nano-SIM).
    In some places, eSIM refers to an embedded SIM card, which cannot be removed from a device.

  14. eUICC – embedded Universal Integrated Circuit Card (also referred to as eSIM)

  15. eUICC Certificate – A certificate issued by the EUM for a specific eUICC. This certificate can be verified using the EUM Certificate.

  16. eUICC Identification (EID) – The EID is the eUICC identifier used in the context of Remote Provisioning and Management of the eUICC.

  17. eUICC Information Set (EIS) – The EIS is the eUICC information set which provides information about the state of the eUICC.

  18. eUICC Manufacturer (eUM) – Supplier of the eUICC and resident software (for example, firmware and operating system).

  19. EUM Certificate – A certificate issued to a GSMA accredited EUM, which can be used to verify eUICC Certificates. This certificate can be verified using the Root Certificate.

  20. Fall–back Mechanism – This is function supported by an eSIM when the enabled profile loses network access, the eSIM automatically enables the fall–back profile to give access to the network.

  21. Fall–back Profile – This is an attribute of a Profile which, when set, identifies the Profile to be enabled by the Fall–back Mechanism. Only one Profile on the eUICC can have the Fallback attribute set at a time. The Profile with Fall–back Attribute set cannot be deleted.

  22. HLR – The Home Location Register is a database from a mobile network in which information from all mobile subscribers is stored. The HLR contains information about the subscriber's identity, their telephone number, the associated services, and general information about the location of the subscriber.

  23. ICCID – (Integrated Circuit Card ID) A unique number assigned to a SIM card.

  24. IMSI – An international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) is a unique number, usually fifteen digits, associated with a carrier profile, identifying a cellular network subscriber.

  25. b>LoRa – The LoRa Alliance is an open, non–profit organization dedicated to promoting interoperability and standardization of low–power wide area network (LPWAN) technologies to drive implementation of the Internet of Things (IoT).

  26. LoRaWAN - LPWAN technology, that uses a license-free frequency spectrum.

  27. LPWAN – Low–Power Wide Area Network; a wireless wide area network technology that interconnects low–bandwidth, battery-powered devices with low bit rates over long ranges.

  28. LTE – Long Term Evolution, a type of 3G that meets 4G speed requirements but lacks the core network features of real 4G. Terms 4G and 4G LTE are used interchangeably, but technically they are not the same.

  29. M2M – Machine to machine

  30. MCC – Mobile Country Code

  31. MNC – Mobile Network Code

  32. MNO – Mobile Network Operator

  33. Mobile Network Operator Security Domain (MNO–SD) – The security domain part of the Profile, owned by the MNO, providing the Secured Channel to the MNO’s OTA Platform. It is used to manage the content of a Profile once the Profile is enabled.

  34. MSISDN – The MSISDN (Mobile Station – ISDN) number is the telephone number that is assigned to a mobile user. This telephone number makes it possible for any subscriber of the plain old telephone network to call a mobile station.

  35. Network Access Application (NAA) – An application residing on a UICC which provides authorization to access a network, for example, a USIM application.

  36. NB–IoT – LPWAN technology in licensed frequency, also known as LTE Cat-NB1/NB2; NarrowBand Internet of Things; Designed for ultra-low bandwidth IoT devices, the lowest power consumption of cellular connectivity solutions.

  37. LTE-M – LPWAN technology in licensed frequency, also known as LTE Cat-M1/M2; Designed for Internet of Things usage; Compared to NB-IoT it has a comparatively higher data rate, mobility, and voice over the network but with a higher cost and higher power consumption.

  38. Notification – A report about a Profile download or Local Profile Management Operation processed by the eUICC.

  39. OEM – An OEM is a manufacturer that produces goods for other companies to sell under their name. OEM is an abbreviation for 'original equipment manufacturer.

  40. Operational Profile – A profile containing one or more Network Access Applications and associated Network Access Credentials and Operator’s applications and 3rd party applications.

  41. Orphaned Profile – A Profile whose Policy Rules have become unmanageable, for example, due to the termination of the Customer’s contract with the Operator.

  42. Ping – query (another computer on a network) to determine whether there is a connection to it.

  43. PLMN – Public Land Mobile Network. Any wireless communications system intended for use by terrestrial subscribers in vehicles or on foot. Such a system can stand alone, but often it is interconnected with a fixed system such as the public switched telephone network (PSTN). The most familiar example of a PLMN end user is a person with a cell phone. However, mobile and portable Internet use is also becoming common.

  44. Platform Management – A set of functions related to the enabling, disabling, and deletion of a Profile on and the transport of Profile Management functions to an eUICC. Platform Management Credentials protect platform Management actions shared between the SM–SR and the ISD–R. Platform Management does not affect the content of a Profile.

  45. Platform Management Credentials (PMC) – Data required within an eUICC so that a secure communication can be set up between an external entity and the eUICC to enable, disable and delete Profiles on the eUICC and to transport Profile Management functions.

  46. Profile – Combination of a file structure, data, and applications to be provisioned onto, or present on, an eUICC and which allows, when enabled, the access to specific mobile network infrastructure.

  47. Profile Component – A Profile Component is an element of the Profile and may be one of the following:

    • An element of the file system like an MF, EF or DF

    • An Application, including NAA and Security Domain

    • POL1

    • MNO–SD

    • Connectivity Parameters

  48. Policy Rule 1 (POL1) – Policy Rules within the Profile.

  49. Policy Rule 2 (POL2) – Policy Rules associated with a Profile and stored in the relevant EIS at the SM–SR.

  50. Roaming – Using cellular service outside of the home network coverage area. The subscriber will be allowed to use a roaming partner's network.

  51. Roaming Steering – Steering of roaming, or “preferred roaming,” is the process by which a mobile operator decides which partner their subscribers will use while roaming.

  52. SIM - Subscriber identity module; an integrated circuit card that stores the network authentication parameters

  53. Short-range IoT - Segment that largely consists of devices connected by unlicensed radio technologies, with a typical range of up to 100 meters, such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and Zigbee

  54. Subscriber – An entity (associated with one or more users) that is engaged in a Subscription with a Telecommunication Service Provider. The Subscriber is allowed to subscribe and unsubscribe to services, to register a user or a list of users authorized to use those services, and also to set the limits relative to the use that associated users make of those services.

  55. Subscription – Describes the commercial relationship between the Subscriber and the Telecommunication Service Provider.

  56. Subscription Manager Data Preparation (SM–DP) – The role that prepares the Profiles and manages the secure download and installation of these Profiles onto the eUICC.

  57. Subscription Manager Secure Routing (SM–SR) – The role that securely performs functions of Platform Management commands and the transport of Profile Management commands.

  58. UICC – The Universal Integrated Circuit Card

  59. USSD – USSD (Unstructured Supplementary Service Data) is a Global System for Mobile(GSM) communication technology that is used to send text between a mobile phone and an application program in the network. Applications may include prepaid roaming or mobile chatting.

  60. USSD (Unstructured Supplementary Service Data) is a Global System for Mobile(GSM) communication technology that is used to send text between a mobile phone and an application program in the network. Applications may include prepaid roaming or mobile chatting.USSD is similar to Short Messaging Service (SMS), but, unlike SMS, USSD transactions occur during the session only. With SMS, messages can be sent to a mobile phone and stored for several days if the phone is not activated or within range. The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) supports USSD. USSD is defined in the GSM standard documents GSM 02.90 and GSM 03.90.

  61. Wide-area IoT - Segment made up of devices using cellular connections or unlicensed low-power technologies like Sigfox and LoRa

  62. XaaS – XaaS is a general, collective term that refers to the delivery of anything as a service. It recognizes the vast number of products, tools, and technologies that vendors now deliver to users as a service over a network –– typically the internet –– rather than provide locally or on-site within an enterprise.

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